Course Syllabus

------ Monday, 7 July 2003 (beginning 14:00)

Information Security: An Overview

Overview of the Seminar; Information at Risk: Threats, Security Objectives, and Security Measures; The Fundamental Information Security Problems; Applications of Cryptography in Information Security; Network Security; Encryption at Different OSI-Layers; Firewalls; Modern Applications; Electronic Commerce; Political Aspects

Cryptography: Basic Concepts and Terminology

Types and Models of Cryptographic Systems; Some History: One-Way Functions and Hash Functions; Secrecy, Authenticity, and Their Duality and Independence; A Basic Calculus of Channel Security Properties; Symmetric Cryptography: Block Ciphers, Stream Ciphers, MACs; Randomness and Pseudo-Randomness; Randomness Testing; Computational vs. Unconditional (or Information-Theoretic) Security; Cryptanalytic Attacks, Assumptions, and Different Security Definitions; Public-Key Cryptosystems; Trapdoor Functions; Digital Signatures; Public-Key Certificates; Key Management

------ Monday, 7 July 2003 (optional evening session, 20:00)

Discrete Mathematics Primer

Algebra Basics: Groups, Rings and Fields; Finite Fields; Ring Zm of Integers Modulo m and its Structure; Prime Numbers; Order of a Group; Cyclic Group of Order n; Discrete Logarithms; Theorems of Lagrange, Fermat, and Euler; Chinese Remainder Theorem; Quadratic Resisues; Jacobi and Legendre Symbols; Basics of Discrete Probability Theory

------ Tuesday, 8 July 2003

Theoretical Foundations

Information Theory: Basic Concepts, Analysis of Cryptosystems, Perfect Secrecy, One-Time Pad, Shannon's Theorem, Key Equivocation, Unicity Distance, Message Authentication; Complexity Theory in Cryptography; Computational Problems and Models; Algorithms; Formal Languages; Asymptotic Analysis; Polynomial and Exponential Time; P vs. NP; NP-Completeness; Cryptographic Significance

Block Ciphers: Design and Cryptanalysis

General Design Framework for Block Ciphers; Substitution; Transposition; Product and Iterative Ciphers; Examples: DES, IDEA, Rijndael (AES); Modes of Operation; Exhaustive Cryptanalysis; Discussion of Key Sizes; Multiple Encryption; Meet-in-the-Middle Attack; Triple-DES; Differential Cryptanalysis; Linear Cryptanalysis

Stream Ciphers: Design and Cryptanalysis

Linear Feedback Shift-Registers (LFSR); Theory of LFSRs; Primitive Polynomials; PN-Sequences; Linear Complexity; LFSR Synthesis; Berlekamp-Massey Algorithm; Nonlinear Combinations of LFSRs; Algebraic Normal Form; Correlation Attacks on Stream Ciphers; Nonlinear Feedback Shift Registers; Clock-Controlled Generators; Self-Synchronizing Stream Ciphers

Hash Functions: Design and Cryptanalysis

Security Definitions; Collision Attacks; Birthday Paradox; Random Oracle Model and its Limitations; Hash Function Design Principles; Examples: MD5, Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1), etc.; Hashing with Block Ciphers; MACs from Hash Functions

------ Wednesday, 9 July 2003

Public-Key Cryptography and Digital Signatures

Fast Exponentiation; Square-and-Multiply Algorithm; Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Protocol, Status of Security; Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) System, Status of Security; Homomorphic Property; Security of LSB; Iterated Encryption Attack; Elliptic Curves (EC): Basics and Applications; Factoring Algorithms: Overview of QS, NFS, (p-1) and EC-Factoring; Discrete Logarithm Algorithms: Overview and Concrete Algorithms; Digital Signatures Based on Discrete Logarithms; Schnorr Scheme; U.S. Digital Signature Standard (DSS); Bleichenbacher's Attack; Elliptic Curve Public-Key Cryptosystems and Digital Signatures; Probabilistic Primality Tests; Fast Generation of Provable Primes; Various Further Cryptosystems (Cramer-Shoup, Goldwasser-Micali, etc.); One-Time Signatures; Merkle's Authentication Tree; Time-Stamping

Provably-Secure Systems

Information-Theoretic vs. Complexity-Theoretic Provable Security; Indistinguishability Proofs; Pseudo-Randomness and Quasi-Randomness; Security of Multiple Encryption; Cascade Ciphers; Secure Key Agreement From Noisy Channels; Privacy Amplification; Bounded-Storage Model; Quantum Cryptography

Public-Key Infrastructures (PKI), Key Management

Objectives of Key Management; Key Establishment Protocols; Shamir's Three-Pass Protocol; Public-Key Authentication; Public-Key Certification; Public-Key Infrastructures (PKI); Public Keys as Digital Representatives; A Calculus for Security in Distributed Systems; The Role of Trust Issues in PKIs: Meaning of Certificates, Revocation, Time Stamping, Trust Management, Recommendations; Uncertainty of Information; Digital Evidence and Non-Repudiation: Main Issues; Real-World Systems: X.509, SSL, PGP, Kerberos, IPSEC, etc.

------ Thursday, 10 July 2003 (ends at 13:00)

Cryptographic Protocols

Identification Protocols; Passwords; Challenge-Response Protocols; Interactive Proofs; Proofs of Knowledge; Commitment Schemes; Zero-Knowledge Protocols; Simulators; A Framework for Discrete-Logarithm-Based Proofs; Fiat-Shamir and Guillou-Quisquater Identification Protocols; Brassard-Crépeau-Chaum Zero-Knowledge Protocol for NP-Statements; Oblivious Transfer; The Millionaires' Problem; Collective Coin-Flipping; Secret Sharing; Shamir's Scheme; Verifiable Secret Sharing; Secure Multi-Party Computation; Homomorphic Commitments; Adversary Models; Cryptographic vs. Information-Theoretic Security; Secure E-Voting Schemes; Group Signature Schemes

Digital Payment Systems

Classification of Payment Systems; Some Types of Systems; On-line Banking; Stored Value Cards; SET; Unforgeable Bank Notes; Blind Digital Signatures; E-Cash; Untraceable Transactions; On-line and Off-line E-Cash; Double-Spender Identification

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Page last modified 21 January 2003